# Comparison Between Different DOTs

## Introduction

Last week, Ondřej, Marianna and I were discussing the differences between two different definitions of Dependent Object Types (DOTs). The original motivation was that I had to make the technical decision of which DOT I am supposed to work on for my Master's thesis. Though the decision was made before the discussion occurred, I think the discussion was very fruitful, and it should be made public. I am not sure if the content from this blog will eventually become a paper, because it depends on my timeline, as well as Ondřej's. On the other hand, I suppose it's very important for a researcher who attempts to work on DOT, and wants to make their technical decision as well.

Here, I will focus my discussion on OOPSLA DOT  and Wadlerfest DOT . Due to limitation of space, it would directly dive into the technical details, without going through the definition of the calculi. Going through all the definitions of DOTs should really be the content of a survey paper, which is not what I am doing now, so I'd expect this article might appear to be difficult for beginners.

## The Comparison

Following are some discussion on the calculi, but before that, I should probably describe a main feature in these calculi to make the problem clearer.

### Path Dependent Types

In Scala, a class can have type members. In DOT, we call it type tags.

class Foo {
type A >: Foo <: Bar
}
val x : Foo = ???
// then in the future, one may refer to the type inside of Foo
val y : x.A = ???


In the notation $$>:$$ means that Foo is some subtype of A, and $$<:$$ means Bar is some supertype of A. Now consider the following piece of code.

val z1 : Foo = ???
val z2 : x.A = z1
val z3 : Bar = z2


x.A in the second line is what we called path dependent types. We refer to the hidden type inside of the object via member access. This piece of code shows something very strange. To begin with, the code has nothing to do with particular Foo or Bar. That means one can turn any types into any other types. From theoretical point of view, in the core calculus, we don't really need this assignment sequence to achieve the same result. Instead, we rely on a fundamental property from the calculus, transitivity.

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma \vdash S <: T \quad \Gamma \vdash T <: U}{\Gamma \vdash S <: U} (Trans) \end{equation*}

Relying on transitivity, we can derive z1 having type Bar immediately. However, such derivation can only be made possible, if x is in the context to begin with. Namely, there needs to be some instance of Foo we can refer to: note that path dependent types only works for existing variables. We refer to this characteristic of connecting two arbitrary types with a path dependent type (or path in short), bad bounds.

This is a core feature in the new Scala, Dotty, and these two calculi are supposed to model the behavior of path dependent types.

### Context Truncation in OOPSLA DOT

In OOPSLA DOT, we can discover that the $$Sel$$ rules have the following form (e.g. $$Sel_1$$).

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma_{[x]} \vdash x :_! (L : T .. \top)}{\Gamma \vdash T <: x.L} (Sel_1) \end{equation*}

In this notation, $$\Gamma_{[x]}$$ denotes that the bindings after $$x$$ from context $$\Gamma$$ are truncated (but $$x$$ is kept).

On the other hand, Wadlerfest DOT has no such truncation.

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma \vdash x : \{L : S .. U \}}{\Gamma \vdash S <: x.L} (Sel_1') \end{equation*}

This treatment, effectively, is used to regulate the behavior of path dependent types. Note that in OOPSLA DOT, the typing is done via a variant with a bang subscript. This difference will be discussed in the next section. For the current problem, consider the following (strange) program.

def foo(x : List[Any])
(y : { type A >: List[Any] <: List[Nothing] })


Consider the generic type of List can be accessed via x.T. In Wadlerfest DOT, this is a valid program, as witnessed by the following proof.

\begin{equation*} \dfrac {\dfrac{x,y \vdash x : List[Any] \quad x,y \vdash List[Any] <: List[Nothing]} {x,y \vdash x : List[Nothing]}} {x,y \vdash x.T <: Nothing} (Sel_1/Sel_1') \end{equation*}

For brievity, I omitted the types bound to the variables in the context, and some sub-derivations that are obvious to see. However, in OOPSLA DOT, the subderivation of $$x,y \vdash List[Any] <: List[Nothing]$$ doesn't work. This is because the context truncation in the $$Sel$$ rules. Since $$x,y \vdash x.T <: Nothing$$ is a conclusion of $$Sel_2$$ rule, any sub-derivations after that point have lost $$y$$, and that makes this derivation impossible in the OOPSLA DOT. There doesn't seem to other way to achieve the same conclusion in OOPSLA DOT either.

That's why I called context truncation behavior is regulating the behavior of path dependent types. Due to the context truncation, how a path dependent type can behave is fixed at its definition time. There is no way to impose further subtyping relation after that. Whereas in Wadlerfest DOT, this is possible.

### $$:!$$ Typing Doesn't Have $$Pack$$ rule

As briefly mentioned above, there is yet another distinction between these two DOTs, which is the bang type ($$:!$$) in OOPSLA DOT. In OOPSLA DOT, there are following two rules.

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma \vdash x : T^x}{\Gamma \vdash x : \{z \Rightarrow T^z\}} (VarPack) \quad \frac{\Gamma \vdash x :_{(!)} \{z \Rightarrow T^z\}}{\Gamma \vdash x :_{(!)} T^x} (VarUnpack) \end{equation*}

The subscript $$(!)$$ means that there is variant of the same rule for bang typing (and without the subscript denote the regular typing). The formulation of these two rules means that during bang typing, there cannot be $$VarPack$$ rule. The entries for bang typing is $$Sel$$ rules (see one rule in the previous section). In Wadlerfest DOT, the similar rules are

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma \vdash x : T^x}{\Gamma \vdash x : \mu\{z : T^z\}} (Rec-I) \quad \frac{\Gamma \vdash x : \mu\{z : T^z\}}{\Gamma \vdash x : T^x} (Rec-E) \end{equation*}

The syntax is different but $$\{x \Rightarrow T^x\}$$ and $$\mu\{x : T^x\}$$ are the same thing. They both denote object types, which means all members in their definitions can refer back to the object reference, and therefore their sibling definitions as well. Now, consider how disallowing $$VarPack$$ rule (or correspondingly $$Rec-I$$ rule) impact the expressiveness of the calculus.

\begin{align*} T_1 &= \{A : \bot .. \top \} \\ T_2 &= \{A : \bot .. \bot \} \\ T_3 &= \{ foo : x.A \} \\ T_4 &\text{ is irrelevant and not }\top. \end{align*}

The we can consider the following program.

\begin{align*} \text{def bar}& (y : \{ B : \{z \Rightarrow T_1 \wedge T_4 \} .. \{ z \Rightarrow T_2 \wedge T_4\} \} ) \\ & (x : \{x \Rightarrow T_1 \wedge T_3 \} \wedge T_4) \\ : & \bot = x.foo \end{align*}

In Wadlerfest, this program is going to compile, because $$x : \{x \Rightarrow T_1 \wedge T_4\}$$ can be shown, by first $$Rec-E$$ rule and then $$Rec-I$$ rule. After that, $$y$$ can be used to prove $$x : \{x \Rightarrow T_2 \wedge T_4\}$$. At this point, we've already got $$\{A : \bot .. \bot\}$$ and been able to show $$x.foo : \bot$$ indeed.

This, however, is impossible, because there is no way to show $$x : \{x \Rightarrow T_2 \wedge T_4\}$$ inside of $$Sel$$ rules, in which $$VarPack$$ rule is forbidden. This gives another point OOPSLA DOT is less expressive than Wadlerfest DOT.

### Multi-Inherience in DOTs

The next disappointment is coming from both DOTs. Notice that in Scala, a very general pattern is to have traits mixed together, and during implementation, the programmers are forced to resolve the multi-inheritance problem, or the compiler will reject the program. For example, consider the following program.

trait Foo
trait Bar
trait WrapFoo { def unwrap : Foo }
trait WrapBar { def unwrap : Bar }
// ...
val x : WrapFoo & WrapBar = ???
val y : Foo & Bar = x.unwrap


In Dotty, & denotes the intersection type as shown above as $$\wedge$$. This is not a problem, because the programmer needs to resolve what type unwrap is supposed to have. e.g.

val x : WrapFoo & WrapBar =
new WrapFoo with WrapBar {
def unwrap : Foo & Bar = new Foo with Bar
}


The second point here, is that from x.unwrap, we are able to obtain Foo & Bar, which is more specific than any other types.

However, this is achievable in none of both.

In Wadlerfest DOT, there is a very close-looking rule.

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma \vdash x : S \quad \Gamma \vdash x : U} {\Gamma \vdash x : S \wedge U} (And-I) \end{equation*}

This looks very close, except that it only operates on variables. To achieve x.unwrap : Foo & Bar as shown above, there are two possible fixes for Wadlerfest DOT.

The first one is to generalize the rule above to work for terms.

\begin{equation*} \frac{\Gamma \vdash t : S \quad \Gamma \vdash t : U} {\Gamma \vdash t : S \wedge U} (And-I') \end{equation*}

Another solution is to assert that intersection $$\wedge$$ and data fields are distributive from subtyping rule

\begin{equation*} \frac{ } {\Gamma \vdash \{a : S \} \wedge \{a : U\} <: \{ a : S \wedge U \}} \end{equation*}

These two fixes would also apply for OOPSLA DOT.

It's quite awkward to have overlooked this missing features for all well-known versions of DOTs for so long.

### To Be Fair: What Wadlerfest DOT Is Missing?

If I stop here, then I would probably make myself look like I am unilaterally criticizing, so I guess to make the game fair, I should point out a number of things that can be done in OOPSLA DOT, but not Wadlerfest DOT.

1. Wadlerfest DOT has no union types ($$\vee$$).
2. Objects / recursive types in Wadlerfest DOT have no subtyping relation between them. This is what led to the comparison to begin with. It's unimaginably strange that, in an object-oriented setting, there isno subtyping relation among objects.

## Takeaways

I guess the point of comparing these two calculi are not really for the sake of comparing them. The purpose should be to learn something from the comparison itself.

By looking afar, I think the distinctions between the calculi are in no sence obvious. On the other hand, when people refer to these different versions of DOTs, each with different expressiveness, the DOT. I think this is a terrible practice. It would probably make sense, to refer to early versions and a later refined version, DOT, but once the calculus is stablized, it becomes awkward to connect these calculi by colliding their names, and makes people think they are different representations of the same thing, while it's not the case.

It can be seen there are lots of informal arguments around DOTs. These arguments, very frequently, are used to connect Dotty and the calculi themselves. For instance, one might need to show that what derivation tree in the calculus corresponds to a desirable type / subtyping relation. However, given how complex the Scala language is, I suppose it's highly non-trivial to present a consistent encoding from Scala to the calculus, while this piece of difficult work is normally hand-waved in a discussion section. For example, In both DOTs, none of the following types mean the same:

\begin{align*} \{ A : \bot .. \top \} &\wedge \{ A : \bot .. T \} \\ \{ x \Rightarrow A : \bot .. \top \} &\wedge \{ A : \bot .. T \} \\ \{ x \Rightarrow A : \bot .. \top \} &\wedge \{ x \Rightarrow A : \bot .. T \} \\ \{ A : \bot .. T \} & \\ \{ x \Rightarrow A : \bot .. T \} & \end{align*}

On the other hand, their distinctions are largely hand-waved, because semantically, they should really be the same.

Another persepective is that at this point, the specification of the core calculus has become too complicated. When we try to prove the soundness of the calculi, we are effectively examining the correctness of the specification using some internal properties. However, there are other external aspects: for example, does it represent Dotty or Scala?

The last question indicates that the specification of the calculus has already become non-trivial for experts to understand, and for experts to state what are their expectations. Subsequently, only misunderstandings follow. In the old days, when $$F_{<:}$$ was still a problem, people have studied it for years. At the level of difficulties of DOT, I think it would worth the same level of effort.

  OOPSLA DOT, OOPSLA 16, http://lampwww.epfl.ch/~amin/dot/soundness_oopsla16.pdf